Kim apparentally took the concepts from very basic kicks he had learned from Choi and went to a temple to work on developing them to a much greater degree.
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Originally a member of the Korea Kido Association, the organization sent Kim to teach hapkido in the United States in Upon returning to Korea in , Kim looked to Ji Han-Jae's move to set up his own organization and with the encouragement of his students followed suit and founded the Korean Hapkido Association in He was one of the earlier students of Hapkido, and one source puts him as the eight original student of Choi Yong-Sool. While having a similar name, this organization is not to be confused with the U.
The Korea Hapkido Association was formed with the assistance of Park Jong Kyu, who was the head of the Presidential Protective Forces and one of the most powerful men in Korea at the time. Myung Jae Nam exchanged martial art techniques and information with an Aikido practitioner named Hirata in , for a period of about four years and included many aikido-like techniques into his version of hapkido. He has produced Several books and videos on the subject of hapkido self-defense. Later Myung Jae-Nam broke away from all the other organizations and started to focus on promoting a new style, hankido.
Until his death in he was the leader of the International Hapkido Federation.
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Chong Min Lee was born and raised in Seoul, Korea. He began his study of Hapkido as a teenager and continued studying Hapkido throughout his life though not a direct student of the late Grandmaster Yong Sool Choi. He has also served as the director of Hapkido demonstrations for such dignitaries as Hubert H. Humphrey and the Chancellor of the Republic of China, Mr. Chang, during their visits to Seoul, Korea. Lee came to the United States in June He has been instructing students for over 42 years in Hapkido. Kim Myung Yong was born in Korea in He was a Hapkido instructor in the military camp of Wang Shim Ri.
His style of Hapkido Jin Jung Kwan has locations all over the world and is one of the largest Hapkido styles practiced. He is now retired in Houston, TX. He is the founder of Bum Moo Kwan Hapkido. Kim is the founder of the Bum Moo Kwan style, in which the practitioner is instructed to finish the encounter quickly, using any available material as weapon or any part of his body, aiming the opponent's pressure or vital points.
Bum Moo is one of the three original and government regulated Hapkido Kwans.
The Jin Mu Kwan is a traditional art of hapkido. JIN- Authentic, true. Prior to entering the army, he obtained his 4th dan certificate signed by Founder Choi through the authority of his first Hapkido teacher Lim, Hyun Soo, promoted to 9th dan by Founder Choi. GM Lim Chae Kwan after studying Founder Choi's Hapkido style and feeling his very high level martial arts has studied diligently his whole life to become a skilled craftsman in Hapkido.
From , Lim attained all of his rank and training directly from Choi Dojunim. During his time training in Hapkido, he endured strict and intense training. In Founder Choi retired and closed his dojang, joined the Jung Ki Kwan, though he retired actively from public teaching.
Founder Choi privately taught Lim during his visits. It was during these times, Lim would further inquire to Founder Choi about various Hapkido techniques. He is an accomplished swordsman and created Chung Suk Kuhapdo after studying and investigating numerous sword styles in Japan and South Korea.. Choi Yong Sul told Lim Hyun Soo that learning the sword would be an essential component to his Hapkido training and approved of Lim's sword training.
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Lim attends the Jung Ki Kwan daily teaching students inside Korea and from around the world. Since , he has visited the U. On the " hard-soft " scale of martial arts, hapkido stands somewhere in the middle, employing "soft" techniques similar to jujutsu and aikido as well as "hard" techniques reminiscent of taekwondo and tang soo do. Even the "hard" techniques, though, emphasize circular rather than linear movements.
Hapkido is an eclectic , hybrid martial art , and different hapkido schools emphasize different techniques. However, some core techniques are found in each school kwan , and all techniques should follow the three principles of hapkido:. Hwa , or harmony, is simply the act of remaining relaxed and not directly opposing an opponent's force. For example, if an opponent were to push against a hapkido student's chest, rather than resist and push back, the hapkido student would blend with the opponent, avoiding any direct confrontation by moving in the same direction as the push and utilizing the opponent's forward momentum to execute a throw.
Won , the circle principle, is a way to gain momentum for executing the techniques in a natural and free-flowing manner. If an opponent attacks in a linear motion, as in a punch or knife thrust, the hapkido student would redirect the opponent's force by leading the attack in a circular pattern, thereby adding the attacker's power to his own.
Once he has redirected that power, the hapkido student can execute any of a variety of techniques to incapacitate his attacker. The hapkido practitioner learns to view an attacker as an " energy entity" rather than as a physical entity. The bigger the person is, the more energy a person has, the better it is for the hapkido student. Yu , the water principle, is analogous to the concept of a "moving target" wherein the saying, "In regards to a stream, you can't step on the same water twice," the current forever moves the water downstream and that persistent flow can erode away just about anything, even a boulder, which is often perceived as a substance that's "stronger" than water.
Hapkido is fluid and does not rely on brute force against force. Rather it is much like water as an adaptable entity, in that a hapkido master will attempt to deflect an opponent's strike in a way that is similar to free-flowing water being divided around a stone, only to return and envelop it. Hapkido seeks to be a fully comprehensive fighting style and as such tries to avoid narrow specialization in any particular type of technique or range of fighting.
It maintains a wide range of tactics for striking , standing joint locks , throwing techniques both pure and joint manipulating throws and pinning techniques.
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Some styles also incorporate tactics for ground fighting although these tactics generally tend to be focused upon escaping and regaining footing or controlling, striking, and finishing a downed opponent, rather than lengthy wrestling or submission grappling engagements. Proper hapkido tactics include using footwork and a series of kicks and hand strikes to bridge the distance with an opponent.
Then to immediately control the balance of the opponent typically by manipulating the head and neck , for a take down or to isolate a wrist or arm and apply a joint twisting throw, depending upon the situation; Hapkido is a comprehensive system and once the opponent's balance has been taken, there are a myriad of techniques to disable and subdue the opponent. These pressure points are either struck to produce unconsciousness or manipulated to create pain allowing one to more easily upset the balance of one's opponent prior to a throw or joint manipulation.
Hapkido emphasizes self-defense over sport fighting and as such employs the use of weapons, including environmental weapons of opportunity, in addition to empty hand techniques. The wide variety of kicks in hapkido make it distinctly Korean. Taekwondo kicks appear to be similar to many of the kicks found in hapkido, though again circular motion is emphasized. Also, in contrast to most modern taekwondo styles, hapkido utilises a wide variety of low below the waist , hooking or sweeping kicks, with one of the most distinctive being the low spinning sweeping heel kick.
Hapkido's method of delivery tends toward greater weight commitment to the strikes and less concern for quick retraction of the kicking leg. At the more advanced levels of Hapkido the practitioner learns "blade kicks" which utilize sweeping blade strikes of the inner and outer foot against pressure points of the body. Two of the earliest innovators in this regard were Ji Han-Jae and Kim Moo-Hong , both of whom were exposed to what were thought to be indigenous Korean kicking arts. They combined these forms together with the yu sool concepts for striking taught to them by Choi and during a period of 8 months training together in finalized the kicking curriculum which would be used by the Korea Hapkido Association for many years to come.
Other influences also were exerted on the kicking techniques of important hapkido teachers. Kim Sang-Cook states that while many of the original yu kwon sool students were exposed to many different contemporary Korean arts the Chung Do Kwan was of particular importance in the transition from the original jujutsu based form to what we know today as modern hapkido. Most forms of hapkido include a series of double kicks used to promote balance, coordination and muscular control. After these kicks are mastered using one foot kick the student moves on to jumping versions using alternate kicking legs.
Others feel that these kicks are more representative of kong soo do and tang soo do styles which emerged from an adaptation of Japanese karate forms. Like most martial arts, hapkido employs a great number of punches and hand strikes, as well as elbow strikes. A distinctive example of hapkido hand techniques is "live hand" strike that focuses energy to the baek hwa hyul in the hand, producing energy strikes and internal strikes. The hand strikes are often used to weaken the opponent before joint locking and throwing, and also as finishing techniques.
Hand striking in hapkido unless in competition is not restricted to punches and open hand striking; some significance is given to striking with fingernails at the throat and eyes; pulling at the opponent's genitals is also covered in conventional training. They are taught similarly to Aikido and Ju Jutsu techniques, but in general the circles are smaller and the techniques are applied in a more linear fashion.
Hapkido's joint manipulation techniques attack both large joints such as the elbow, shoulder, neck, back, knee, and hip and small joints such as wrists, fingers, ankles, toes, and jaw. Most techniques involve applying force in the direction that a joint moves naturally and then forcing it to overextend or by forcing a joint to move in a direction that goes against its natural range of motion. These techniques can be used to cause pain and force a submission, to gain control of an opponent for 'come along' techniques as is often employed in law enforcement , to assist in a hard or gentle throw or to cause the dislocation or breaking of the joint.
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