He Jiankui knew he was crossing a new bioethical boundary, when he revealed in November that he had altered the genomes of two infants — in a way that would be passed on to future generations. The reaction to the news was stronger than He had expected. He was widely criticized for ignoring important ethical considerations and exposing the girls to unknown risks for an uncertain benefit. The Chinese science ministry forbade him from continuing research. And the health ministry launched an investigation. He, who is now not speaking to the press, disappeared from the world stage as quickly as he had emerged.
He came to gene editing as an outsider. The first publication listed on his website, from a decade ago, is related to quantum physics. In , he had publications on economics, evolution and the nature of curious repeated sections of DNA in bacterial genomes. He won some acclaim for his work in genome sequencing. A company he founded, Direct Genomics in Shenzhen, targeted the clinical-sequencing market and pulled in hundreds of millions of dollars in investments.
But He wanted to get into gene editing. He will leave a complicated legacy. Scientists worry that the field of gene editing might now struggle to secure funding , regulatory approval or support from the public. Wade, a polymer physicist at Imperial College London, has tackled many science-outreach projects aimed at fostering diversity. These have inspired similar events around the world, including some focused on other professions.
Wade once again used social media to highlight the comments, and they were widely condemned. Strumia has been suspended from his work with CERN while an investigation is ongoing. Wade expects to press on with her outreach, including stocking school libraries with the book Inferior by Angela Saini, which explores the harm caused by gender stereotypes. The IPCC normally takes the better part of a decade to produce its massive assessments, but the 1.
The report makes clear that limiting warming to 1. But keeping to 1. Masson-Delmotte also worked to elevate the role of early-career scientists and researchers from the global south. And for the next full climate assessment, due out in , she has introduced procedures to promote engagement by all authors — including an online participation tool for scientists who are uncomfortable speaking up during meetings.
In an attempt to break down scientific silos, researchers from various disciplines worked together on every chapter. The result, Masson-Delmotte says, was an analysis that focused less on emissions scenarios and more on social, technological and governmental policies that could foster change — without exacerbating poverty and inequality around the world.
Masson-Delmotte spent ten days talking about the report and the wider IPCC process with delegates at the United Nations climate summit in late Now, she and the other co-chairs are pushing forward with two more reports — one on terrestrial biomes, the other on oceans and polar regions, slated for release in August and September , respectively. Similar to the IPCC itself — participation in which is a voluntary affair — Masson-Delmotte says that she is stretched to the limit.
For many astronomers, Christmas this year came on 25 April at precisely Coordinated Universal Time. Researchers around the world were eager to dive into the data. Brown had good reason. The Gaia spacecraft, which launched in , spins to scan the sky and records the starlight that streaks across the camera.
The team decided to characterize the problem carefully and explain it in the release, rather than delay for more than a year to collect more data to reduce the error, says Amina Helmi, an astronomer at the Kapteyn Astronomical Institute in Groningen, the Netherlands, and a member of the consortium.
Brown has an impressive ability to motivate researchers who would rather be working on science, Helmi says. There is really this feeling that we all share that wants to make Gaia a success. Brown and his colleagues have had little time to catch their breath. They are already preparing the next data release, which will probably be ready some time in the first half of Another is planned after that, and more could follow: in November, the mission was extended to at least the end of Bee Yin Yeo began to question the future of the world — and her own career — while evaluating oil wells in the deserts of Turkmenistan.
The new university graduate decided that humanity would eventually move away from fossil fuels, so she decided to find another profession that would serve the well-being of the world. She joined politics and won a seat in a state legislative assembly in The new government brought in its own cabinet members, including Yeo, who was appointed Minister of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment and Climate Change. Yeo had spent the previous 5 years attacking national policies, and now she could change them.
Since taking office on 2 July, Yeo has made several bold steps in reforming how Malaysia manages its environment and research. She also went to battle against plastics pollution — which plagues southeast Asia. She criticized the influx of plastic waste into Malaysia, and helped to set a nationwide ban on its import. On 31 October, Yeo launched a year roadmap and legal framework towards eliminating single-use plastic in Malaysia by , which also calls for research and commercialization of eco-friendly alternatives, such as biodegradable plastics.
In October, the European parliament voted to ban their use in products such as straws and cutlery. And a growing number of other nations have issued similar bans. Wee says, however, that compared to her predecessors, Yeo has given the MPMA more opportunities to voice its opinion. Yeo says that by funding local research and adopting foreign techniques, Malaysia can develop the technology for biodegradable plastic.
In February , Barbara Rae-Venter got a call from an investigator looking for help with a criminal case. Rae-Venter first trained in genetic genealogy — which uses DNA to fill out family trees — to explore her own ancestry.
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Holes was on the trail of a man who had terrorized California during the s and s. With 12 murders, 45 rapes and burglaries attributed to him, the elusive perpetrator had become known as the East Area Rapist, the Original Night Stalker and the Golden State Killer. Right away, she found someone who seemed to be a third or fourth cousin to the killer.
With the help of the FBI and local law officials, she worked to triangulate a common ancestor and then build the family tree. She eventually zeroed in on Joseph DeAngelo, a former police officer living in Sacramento. A direct test of his DNA proved the match. Many in the genealogy community knew that this approach was possible and there had been ongoing debates over whether it constituted an invasion of privacy.
Moore says that she had been approached in the past to help in this way, but declined because of the debate and because most people who used GEDmatch were unaware that it could be done. The floodgates have now opened for these kinds of cases. Rae-Venter says that she has been approached for help in more than 70 cases. Quiet and private, she is nevertheless excited to get more involved.
After all, her new calling seems to run in the family.
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In her own research, she identified a great uncle who was a detective inspector with the London Metropolitan Police during the time of Jack the Ripper. She announces she has decided to go back to Mike. The novel ends with Jake and Brett in a taxi speaking of the things that might have been. Americans were drawn to Paris in the Roaring Twenties by the favorable exchange rate , with as many as , English-speaking expatriates living there. For example, Hemingway was in Paris during the period when Ulysses , written by his friend James Joyce , was banned and burned in New York.
The themes of The Sun Also Rises appear in its two epigraphs. The first is an allusion to the " Lost Generation ", a term coined by Gertrude Stein referring to the post-war generation; [note 2]  the other epigraph is a long quotation from Ecclesiastes : "One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever.
The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose. Hemingway scholar Wagner-Martin writes that Hemingway wanted the book to be about morality, which he emphasized by changing the working title from Fiesta to The Sun Also Rises. Wagner-Martin argues that the book can be read either as a novel about bored expatriates or as a morality tale about a protagonist who searches for integrity in an immoral world.
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He began writing the story of a matador corrupted by the influence of the Latin Quarter crowd; he expanded it into a novel about Jake Barnes at risk of being corrupted by wealthy and inauthentic expatriates. The characters form a group, sharing similar norms, and each greatly affected by the war.
His wound symbolizes the disability of the age, the disillusion, and the frustrations felt by an entire generation. Hemingway thought he lost touch with American values while living in Paris, but his biographer Michael Reynolds claims the opposite, seeing evidence of the author's midwestern American values in the novel.
Hemingway admired hard work. He portrayed the matadors and the prostitutes, who work for a living, in a positive manner, but Brett, who prostitutes herself, is emblematic of "the rotten crowd" living on inherited money.
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It is Jake, the working journalist, who pays the bills again and again when those who can pay do not. Hemingway shows, through Jake's actions, his disapproval of the people who did not pay up. As such, the author created an American hero who is impotent and powerless. Jake becomes the moral center of the story. He never considers himself part of the expatriate crowd because he is a working man; to Jake a working man is genuine and authentic, and those who do not work for a living spend their lives posing.
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The twice-divorced Brett Ashley represented the liberated New Woman in the s, divorces were common and easy to be had in Paris.
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